Covid reagents

Contents

COVID-19 IgG & IgM antibody
GEN-50001-50tests 50 tests
EUR 324
Description: A rapid test for detection of antibodies (IgG and IgM) for 2019-nCoV, the novel Coronavirus from the Wuhan strain. The test is easy to perform, takes 10 minutes to provide reliable results and is higly specific to the 2019-nCoV Coronavirus.
COVID-19 RT-qPCR Rapid Detection Kit
G628 NULL
EUR 0
Accu-Tell COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test
GEN-B352-20tests 20 tests
EUR 236
Description: A rapid test for detection of antibodies (IgG and IgM) for 2019-nCoV, the novel Coronavirus from the Wuhan strain. The test is easy to perform, takes 10 minutes to provide reliable results and is higly specific to the 2019-nCoV Coronavirus.
Accu-Tell COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test
GEN-B352-40tests 40 tests
EUR 321
Description: A rapid test for detection of antibodies (IgG and IgM) for 2019-nCoV, the novel Coronavirus from the Wuhan strain. The test is easy to perform, takes 10 minutes to provide reliable results and is higly specific to the 2019-nCoV Coronavirus.
Purified recombinant COVID-19 (isolate Wuhan-Hu-1) NP protein
nCoVNP-126V 100ug
EUR 792
Description: Purified recombinant COVID-19(isolate Wuhan-Hu-1) NP protein was expressed in HEK293 cells.
Recombinant COVID-19 (isolate Wuhan-Hu-1) S(ΔTM) protein
nCoVS-125V 100ug
EUR 792
Description: Purified recombinant COVID-19(isolate Wuhan-Hu-1) S(ΔTM) protein was expressed in HEK293 cells.
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) Real Time RT-PCR Kit
RR-0478-02 25 tests/kit
EUR 991
  • For use with PE5700, MJ-Opticon & other single color systems, ABI7000, ABI7300, ABI7500, ABI7900, ABI StepOne, StepOne plus, MJ-Opticon2, MJ-chromo4, MX3000P, MX3005P, Smart Cycler II, Rotor-Gene 6000, LightCycler 480, CFX 96, Life 96, Slan 96, iCycl
  • Show more
Description: Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real Time RT-PCR Kit is used for the qualitative detection of a novel coronavirus, which was identified in 2019 at Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in upper respiratory tract specimens (nasopharyngeal extracts, deep cough sputum, etc.) and lower respiratory tract specimens (alveoli irrigation fluid, etc.) by real time PCR systems.
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) Real Time Multiplex RT-PCR Kit (Detection for 3 Genes )
RR-0479-02 25 tests/kit
EUR 1347
  • For use with PE5700, MJ-Opticon & other single color systems, ABI7000, ABI7300, ABI7500, ABI7900, ABI StepOne, StepOne plus, MJ-Opticon2, MJ-chromo4, MX3000P, MX3005P, Smart Cycler II, Rotor-Gene 6000, LightCycler 480, CFX 96, Life 96, Slan 96, iCycl
  • Show more
Description: Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real Time Multiplex RT-PCR Kit is used for the qualitative detection of a novel coronavirus, which was identified in 2019 at Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in upper respiratory tract specimens (nasopharyngeal extracts, deep cough sputum, etc.) and lower respiratory tract specimens (alveoli irrigation fluid, etc.) by real time PCR systems. It detects N gene, E gene and RdRp gene of 2019-nCoV. RR-0479-02 has been also approverd by CFDA for emergency use and is WHO standard.
Sars CoV 2 rt-pcr detection

Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study.

Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described.In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death.191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03-1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61-12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/L (18·42, 2·64-128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0-24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days.The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/L could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future.Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.


Early dynamics of transmission and control of COVID-19: a mathematical modelling study.

An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to 95 333 confirmed cases as of March 5, 2020. Understanding the early transmission dynamics of the infection and evaluating the effectiveness of control measures is crucial for assessing the potential for sustained transmission to occur in new areas. Combining a mathematical model of severe SARS-CoV-2 transmission with four datasets from within and outside Wuhan, we estimated how transmission in Wuhan varied between December, 2019, and February, 2020. We used these estimates to assess the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission to occur in locations outside Wuhan if cases were introduced.We combined a stochastic transmission model with data on cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan and international cases that originated in Wuhan to estimate how transmission had varied over time during January, 2020, and February, 2020. Based on these estimates, we then calculated the probability that newly introduced cases might generate outbreaks in other areas. To estimate the early dynamics of transmission in Wuhan, we fitted a stochastic transmission dynamic model to multiple publicly available datasets on cases in Wuhan and internationally exported cases from Wuhan. The four datasets we fitted to were: daily number of new internationally exported cases (or lack thereof), by date of onset, as of Jan 26, 2020; daily number of new cases in Wuhan with no market exposure, by date of onset, between Dec 1, 2019, and Jan 1, 2020; daily number of new cases in China, by date of onset, between Dec 29, 2019, and Jan 23, 2020; and proportion of infected passengers on evacuation flights between Jan 29, 2020, and Feb 4, 2020. We used an additional two datasets for comparison with model outputs: daily number of new exported cases from Wuhan (or lack thereof) in countries with high connectivity to Wuhan (ie, top 20 most at-risk countries), by date of confirmation, as of Feb 10, 2020; and data on new confirmed cases reported in Wuhan between Jan 16, 2020, and Feb 11, 2020.
FINDINGS
We estimated that the median daily reproduction number (Rt) in Wuhan declined from 2·35 (95% CI 1·15-4·77) 1 week before travel restrictions were introduced on Jan 23, 2020, to 1·05 (0·41-2·39) 1 week after. Based on our estimates of Rt, assuming SARS-like variation, we calculated that in locations with similar transmission potential to Wuhan in early January, once there are at least four independently introduced cases, there is a more than 50% chance the infection will establish within that population.
Our results show that COVID-19 transmission probably declined in Wuhan during late January, 2020, coinciding with the introduction of travel control measures. As more cases arrive in international locations with similar transmission potential to Wuhan before these control measures, it is likely many chains of transmission will fail to establish initially, but might lead to new outbreaks eventually. Wellcome Trust, Health Data Research UK, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and National Institute for Health Research.


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): What we know?

In late December 2019, a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases has been reported in Wuhan, China. A few days later, the causative agent of this mysterious pneumonia was identified as a novel coronavirus. This causative virus has been temporarily named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the relevant infected disease has been named as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization respectively. The COVID-19 epidemic is spreading in China and all over the world now. The purpose of this review is primarily to review the pathogen, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19, but also to comment briefly on the epidemiology and pathology based on the current evidences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


Liver injury during highly pathogenic human coronavirus infections.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), the pathogen of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to global public health. The WHO has declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection an international public health emergency. Lung lesions have been considered as the major damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, liver injury has also been reported to occur during the course of the disease in severe cases. Similarly, previous studies have shown that liver damage was common in the patients infected by the other two highly pathogenic coronavirus – severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and associated with the severity of diseases. In this review, the characteristics and mechanism of liver injury caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection were summarized, which may provide help for further studies on the liver injury of COVID-19.


Impact of international travel and border control measures on the global spread of the novel 2019 coronavirus outbreak.

The novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) in mainland China has rapidly spread across the globe. Within 2 mo since the outbreak was first reported on December 31, 2019, a total of 566 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS CoV-2) cases have been confirmed in 26 other countries. Travel restrictions and border control measures have been enforced in China and other countries to limit the spread of the outbreak. We estimate the impact of these control measures and investigate the role of the airport travel network on the global spread of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results show that the daily risk of exporting at least a single SARS CoV-2 case from mainland China via international travel exceeded 95% on January 13, 2020. We found that 779 cases (95% CI: 632 to 967) would have been exported by February 15, 2020 without any border or travel restrictions and that the travel lockdowns enforced by the Chinese government averted 70.5% (95% CI: 68.8 to 72.0%) of these cases. In addition, during the first three and a half weeks of implementation, the travel restrictions decreased the daily rate of exportation by 81.3% (95% CI: 80.5 to 82.1%), on average. At this early stage of the epidemic, reduction in the rate of exportation could delay the importation of cases into cities unaffected by the COVID-19 outbreak, buying time to coordinate an appropriate public health response.


Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with multiple common respiratory pathogens in infected patients.

Genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species.

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, so far, there are still controversies about the source of the virus and its intermediate host. Here, we found the novel coronavirus was closely related to coronaviruses derived from five wild animals, including Paguma larvata, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Civet, Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Rhinolophus sinicus, and was in the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. However, genome and ORF1a homology show that the virus is not the same coronavirus as the coronavirus derived from these five animals, whereas the virus has the highest homology with Bat coronavirus isolate RaTG13.


The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status.

An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.


A Novel Approach for a Novel Pathogen: using a home assessment team to evaluate patients for 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).

Thousands of people in the United States have required testing for SARS-CoV-2. Evaluation for a special pathogen is resource intensive. We report an innovative approach to home assessment that, in collaboration with public health, enables safe evaluation and specimen collection outside the healthcare setting, avoiding unnecessary exposures and resource utilization.


The establishment of reference sequence for SARS-CoV-2 and variation analysis.

Starting around December 2019, an epidemic of pneumonia, which was named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO), broke out in Wuhan, China, and is spreading throughout the world. A new coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2 by the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) was soon found to be the cause. At present, the sensitivity of clinical nucleic acid detection is limited, and it is still unclear whether it is related to genetic variation. In this study, we retrieved 95 full-length genomic sequences of SARAS-CoV-2 strains from the NCBI and GISAID databases, established the reference sequence by conducting multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses, and analyzed sequence variations along the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The homology among all viral strains was generally high, among them 99.99% (99.91%-100%) at the nucleotide level, 99.99% (99.79%-100%) at the amino acid level. Although overall variation in ORF regions is low, 13 variation sites in 1a, 1b, S, 3a, M, 8, and N regions were identified, among which positions nt28144 in ORF 8 and nt8782 in ORF 1a showed mutation rate of 30.53% (29/95) and 29.47% (28/95) respectively. These findings suggested that there may be selective mutations in SARS-COV-2, and it is necessary to avoid certain regions when designing primers and probes. Establishment of the reference sequence for SARS-CoV-2 could benefit not only biological study of this virus but also diagnosis, clinical monitoring and intervention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


The potential chemical structure of anti-SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

An outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan and it has rapidly spread to almost all parts of the world. For coronaviruses, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important protease that catalyze the replication of RNA from RNA template and is an attractive therapeutic target. In this study, we screened these chemical structures from traditional Chinese medicinal compounds proven to show anti-viral activity in SARS-CoV and the similar chemical structures through a molecular docking study to target RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. We found that theaflavin has a lower idock score in the catalytic pocket of RdRp in SARS-CoV-2 (-9.11 kcal/mol), SARS-CoV (-8.03 kcal/mol) and MERS-CoV (-8.26 kcal/mol) from idock. To confirm the result, we discovered that theaflavin has a lower binding energy of -8.8 kcal/mol when it docks in the catalytic pocket of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp by using the Blind Docking server. Regarding contact modes, hydrophobic interactions contribute significantly in binding and additional hydrogen bonds were found between theaflavin and RdRp. Moreover, one π-cation interaction was formed between theaflavin and Arg553 from the Blind Docking server. Our results suggest that theaflavin could be potential SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitor for further study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


An exclusive 42 amino acid signature in pp1ab protein provides insights into the evolutive history of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus (SARS-CoV2).

The city of Wuhan, Hubei province, China, was the origin of a severe pneumonia outbreak in December 2019, attributed to a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2), causing a total of 2761 deaths and 81109 cases (February 25, 2020). SARS-CoV2 belongs to genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus. The polyprotein 1ab (pp1ab) remains unstudied thoroughly since it is similar to other sarbecoviruses. In this short communication, we performed phylogenetic-structural sequence analysis of pp1ab protein of SARS-CoV2. The analysis showed that the viral pp1ab has not changed in most isolates throughout the outbreak time, but interestingly a deletion of 8 aa in the virulence factor non-structural protein 1 was found in a virus isolated from a Japanese patient that did not display critical symptoms. While comparing pp1ab protein with other betacoronaviruses, we found a 42 amino acid signature that is only present in SARS-CoV2 (AS-SCoV2). Members from clade 2 of sarbecoviruses have traces of this signature. The AS-SCoV2 located in the acidic-domain of papain-like protein of SARS-CoV2 and bat-SL-RatG13 guided us to suggest that the novel 2019 coronavirus probably emerged by genetic drift from bat-SL-CoV-RaTG13. The implication of this amino acid signature in papain-like protein structure arrangement and function is something worth to be explored. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: a potential approach for coronavirus infection therapy?

A new coronavirus, referred to as SARS-CoV-2, is responsible for the recent outbreak of severe respiratory disease. This outbreak first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has spread to other regions of China and to 25 other countries as of January, 2020. It has been known since the 2003 SARS epidemic that the receptor critical for SARS-CoV entry into host cells is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S1 domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV attaches the virus to its cellular receptor ACE2 on the host cells. We thought that it is timely to explain the connection between the SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and the rationale for soluble ACE2 as a potential therapy.


Evidence of the COVID-19 Virus Targeting the CNS: Tissue Distribution, Host-Virus Interaction, and Proposed Neurotropic Mechanisms.

The recent outbreak of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has gripped the world with apprehension and has evoked a scare of epic proportion regarding its potential to spread and infect humans worldwide. As we are in the midst of an ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, scientists are struggling to understand how it resembles and differs from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) at the genomic and transcriptomic level. In a short time following the outbreak, it has been shown that, similar to SARS-CoV, COVID-19 virus exploits the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to gain entry inside the cells. This finding raises the curiosity of investigating the expression of ACE2 in neurological tissue and determining the possible contribution of neurological tissue damage to the morbidity and mortality caused by COIVD-19. Here, we investigate the density of the expression levels of ACE2 in the CNS, the host-virus interaction and relate it to the pathogenesis and complications seen in the recent cases resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak. Also, we debate the need for a model for staging COVID-19 based on neurological tissue involvement.


Complete Genome Sequence of a 2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Strain Isolated in Nepal.

A complete genome sequence was obtained for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated from an oropharyngeal swab specimen of a Nepalese patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who had returned to Nepal after traveling to Wuhan, China.


A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19).

There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.


Enhanced isolation of SARS-CoV-2 by TMPRSS2-expressing cells.

A novel betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused a large respiratory outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is currently spreading across many countries globally. Here, we show that a TMPRSS2-expressing VeroE6 cell line is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, making it useful for isolating and propagating SARS-CoV-2. Our results reveal that, in common with SARS- and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 infection is enhanced by TMPRSS2.


The emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), their biology and therapeutic options.

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not clear yet, however, its resemblance with SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infected people. In this Review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.
Positive result of Sars-Cov-2 in sputum from a cured patient with COVID-19.

New coronavirus outbreak: Framing questions for pandemic prevention.

We need to understand and quantify the dominant variables that govern the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, rather than relying exclusively on confirmed cases and their geospatial spread.
Geographical tracking and mapping of coronavirus disease COVID-19/severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic and associated events around the world: how 21st century GIS technologies are supporting the global fight against outbreaks and epidemics.

In December 2019, a new virus (initially called ‘Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV’ and later renamed to SARS-CoV-2) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (coronavirus disease COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread to other parts of China and other countries around the world, despite China’s massive efforts to contain the disease within Hubei. As with the original SARS-CoV epidemic of 2002/2003 and with seasonal influenza, geographic information systems and methods, including, among other application possibilities, online real-or near-real-time mapping of disease cases and of social media reactions to disease spread, predictive risk mapping using population travel data, and tracing and mapping super-spreader trajectories and contacts across space and time, are proving indispensable for timely and effective epidemic monitoring and response. This paper offers pointers to, and describes, a range of practical online/mobile GIS and mapping dashboards and applications for tracking the 2019/2020 coronavirus epidemic and associated events as they unfold around the world. Some of these dashboards and applications are receiving data updates in near-real-time (at the time of writing), and one of them is meant for individual users (in China) to check if the app user has had any close contact with a person confirmed or suspected to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the recent past. We also discuss additional ways GIS can support the fight against infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics.
Lack of maternal-fetal SARS-CoV-2 transmission.